This article is excerpted from A HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE MODERN DOGS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. (THE TERRIERS.) a book written by Rawdon B. Lee and published in 1894. The book is in the public domain and is available in its entirety for download in several formats at the Internet Archive . This article represents Chapter XI, The Scottish Terrier. I included the book’s Preface at the end of the article to give you a sense of the author’s purpose and goal for writing the book. If you are interested in reading remainder of the book dealing with other Terriers please click on the Internet Archive link above.
Provenance of Janet Tomlinson, Historian
I tried to keep the original English spellings wherever I could. Because I had to use an optical character recognition program to turn the book into an article suitable for publishing here, there may an occasional odd character; please overlook them. Now, on with one of the oldest breed history articles published on the STCA web site.
CHAPTER XI. - THE SCOTTISH TERRIER.
FROM all I have been told, and from what I have read, I believe that this little dog is the oldest variety of the canine race indigenous to North Britain, although but a comparatively recent introduction across the border and into fashionable society, at any rate under his present name. For generations he had been a popular dog in the Highlands, where, strangely enough, he was always known as the Skye terrier, although he is so different from the long-coated, unsporting-like looking creature with which that name is now associated. Even Hugh Dalziel, in the first edition of his "British Dogs," published so recently as 188 I, gives an excellent illustration of the Scotch terrier which he calls a Skye terrier.
Our little friend has, perhaps, been rather unfortunate so far as nomenclature is concerned, for, after being called a Skye terrier, he became known as the Scotch terrier, the Scots terrier, and the Highland terrier; then others dubbed him the Cairn terrier and the Die Hard, whilst another move was made to give him the distinguishing appellation of the Aberdeen terrier. Now he has been thoroughly wound up, and, I suppose to suit those persons of teetotal proclivities who connected the word “Scotch” with the national liquor called whiskey, has developed into the "Scottish" terrier; as such he is known in the Stud Books, and is acknowledged as of that name by the leading Scotch, or Scottish, authorities on the variety. Well, he is a game, smart, perky little terrier, and I do not think that his general excellence and desirability as a companion are likely to suffer from the evolutions his name has undergone. Years ago, before dog shows were invented, any cross bred creature was called a Scotch terrier, especially if he appeared to stand rather higher on the legs than the ordinary terrier; if he were on short legs he was an “otter” terrier.
In an old “Sportsman,” a three halfpenny little magazine published in 1833, there is a wood engraving, by no means a bad one, of “The Scotch terrier.” This is a big, leggy, cut-eared dog with a docked tail, evidently hard in coat and very game looking; were such a dog to be shown to-day he would be most likely to take a prize in the Irish terrier classes. The letterpress description does not, however, tally with the picture, for after saying that the Scotch terrier is purest in point of breed, it proceeds to state that " the Scotch terrier is generally low in stature, seldom more than 12in. or 14in. in height, with a strong muscular body and stout legs; his ears small and half pricked; his head is rather large in proportion to the size of his body, and his muzzle is considerably pointed. His scent is extremely acute, so that he can trace the footsteps of other animals with certainty; he is generally of a sand colour or black, dogs of this colour being certainly the most hardy and · most to be depended upon. When white or pied, it is a sure mark of the impurity of the breed. The hair of this terrier is long, matted, and hard over almost every part of his body. His bite is extremely keen." This is not a bad description of a Scottish terrier of the present day, excepting that the matted coat is not required, that the semi-erect ears are not fashionable, and that a white specimen of pure blood crops up occasionally.
However, the same writer goes on to state that “there are three distinct varieties of the Scotch terrier, viz., the one above described; another about the same size as the former, but with hair much longer and more flowing, which gives the legs the appearance of being very short. This is the prevailing breed of the western isles of Scotland.” This, of course, will answer for a description of our ordinary Skye terrier. Then of the third variety, which may be taken to be the ordinary or mongrel variety, the writer in the “Sportsman” says this “is much larger than the former two, being generally from 15 to I8in. in height, with the hair very hard and wiry, and much shorter than that of the others. It is from this breed that the best bull terriers have been produced."
Whoever wrote the above I do not know, but Thomson Gray, in his “Dogs of Scotland,” makes a similar quotation, which he says is from “Brown's Field Book,” also published in 1833. However, I take the description to be interesting.
What to me appears to be the strangest part of all, is that even the Highland sportsmen of that time, and a little later, called their native terrier the Skye terrier St. John in his “Highland Sports” ( 1846) alluded to some of his terriers as Skyes, when they were undoubtedly our “die-hards.” The long silky-coated dogs of the western isles would have been no use to a sportsman such as he, and although game enough in their way, they, the Skyes, did not possess the activity nor the power to tackle the wild cat, the marten, and other vermin found in the wilds of Sutherlandshire, where Charles St. John lived. Moreover, he also calls them “Highland terriers.”
He says, "Why do Highland terriers so often run on three legs-particularly when bent on mischief? Is it to keep one in reserve in case of emergencies? I never had a Highland terrier who did not hop along constantly on three legs, keeping one of them up as if to rest it.
“The Skye terrier has a great deal of quiet intelligence, learning to watch his master's looks and understand his meaning in a wonderful manner . . . . This dog shows great impetuosity in attacking vermin of all kinds, though often his courage is accompanied by a kind of shyness and reserve; but when once roused by being bit or scratched in its attacks on vermin, the Skye terrier fights to the last, and shows a great deal of cunning and generalship as well as courage. Unless well entered when young they are apt to be noisy, and yelp and bark more than fight. The terriers I have had of this kind show some curious habits, unlike most other dogs. I have observed that when young they frequently make a kind of seat under a bush or hedge, where they will sit for hours together crouched like a wild animal. Unlike other dogs, too, they will eat (though not driven by hunger) almost anything that is given them, such as raw eggs, the bones and meat of wild ducks or wood pigeons and other birds that every other kind of dog, however hungry, rejects with disgust. In fact, in many respects their habits resemble those of wild animals. They always are excellent swimmers, taking the water quietly and fearlessly when very young.”
My favourite author then proceeds to write · of their use in taking his master quickly up to a wounded deer, but, irrespective of the latter, no one can say that St. John's description does not altogether tally with that of the Scotch terrier. It is nearly twenty years since the late Captain Mackie gave me a small, semi-prick eared dog he had got from the north of Scotland, from which the above description might have been taken. It ran at times on three legs, was slow to be the aggressor, but was a terrible punisher for a fourteen pound dog when he did start; and he, too, was at times shy and reserved, and would eat grouse and pigeon as freely as he would any butchers' meat.
Long before I owned this dog a friend of mine had a similar one sent out of Caithness-shire, which was called a " Skye terrier," but again he turned out to be just a Scottish little fellow, short on the legs, hard in coat, and as game as possible. Both these were brown brindles in colour, which I fancy were at that time more plentiful than the black brindles or almost black dogs, oftener seen on the show bench to-day.
It was about the year 1874 that a newspaper controversy brought the Scottish terrier prominently before the public, and the Crystal Palace shows and the one at Brighton the following year, viz., in 1876, provided classes for them, which, however, failed to fill. Then there came a lull, a club was formed, and in 1879 Mr. J. B. Morrison, of Greenock, was invited to the Alexandra Palace show to judge the Scotch terriers in a class which had been provided for them. A few months later divisions were given them at the Dundee show, when the winner, though a pure “Scottie,” was called a Skye terrier, and came from that island. Birmingham provided a class in 1881, and with an incompetent judge the prizes were withheld, though such men as the late Captain Mackie, Mr. Ludlow, and Mr. J. A. Adamson were exhibitors. The Curzon Hall show appears to have been rather unfortunate in this sort of thing, for previously the leading prize in wire-haired fox terriers was withheld when there was as good a specimen of the variety as we ever saw on the bench or in the ring at any time. However, another year things went better with the Scottish terriers, as in 1883 Messrs. Ludlow and Blomfield, of Norwich, to whom much of the credit for the popularisation of the breed is due, again made entries and won chief honours with their little dogs Rambler and Bitters. Two years later Captain Mackie was the most successful competitor, securing the leading prizes with his historical Dundee and his lovely little bitch Glengogo, and so we are brought right down to the present time.
Much has been written of the various strains of the Scottish terrier, but such are of little account, as, although they were kept by many of the Highland sportsmen on their estates, and used for hunting purposes and for killing vermin, all had sprung from a common origin. They had not sufficiently distinguishing features from each other to merit a separation, though every laird said his own breed was the best and the only one to be found in its original purity. However, be this as it may, there is no doubt in my mind that this terrier had inhabited Scotland long before modern writers told us what they knew about dogs, and that all the stories about the Skye terriers being in reality a half -bred poodle or Maltese, made so by one of the breed washed up from a shipwrecked vessel on the coast of Skye, is all nonsense – a traveller's tale and no more. The so-called Aberdeen terrier is the Scottish terrier pure and simple, and the Poltalloch terrier, mentioned in "Dogs of Scotland," is a yellowish white variety kept by the Malcolms at Poltalloch, in Argyllshire, where the strain is carefully preserved. These terriers only differ in colour from the ordinary Scottish terrier. A white puppy occasionally appears in a litter of the latter as it does sometimes in deerhounds. Of course, if these white puppies were reared and bred from, a strain of that colour would eventually be perpetuated, and probably this has been the case in the first instance at Poltalloch. Some years ago Mr. Thomson Gray procured a white bitch of pure pedigree for Captain Keene, a well-known member of the Kennel Club. I have a portrait of her by me now, and she is certainly a Scottish terrier in every particular, and a great favourite with her owner, who entered her in the "Stud Book" as White Heather. From her, Captain Keene has had three litters to ordinary coloured dogs of the breed, but not one of the puppies has yet taken after their dam, all of them, strangely enough, being either black or very dark brindle.
It is a somewhat remarkable fact that this white Scottish terrier is occasionally produced in the ordinary course from dark coloured parents; the Scottish deerhound likewise, but not frequently, throws a similar puppy in the same way, and Mr. J. Pratt has been successful in breeding two or three Skye terriers pretty nearly pure white. In alluding to these off coloured specimens one must not forget that fawn or sandy Scottish terriers are by no means infrequent, and two or three years ago Mr. A. Maxwell, of Croft, near Darlington, won several prizes with a dog of this colour, and a very good specimen of his race too. We all know that the fawn colour in deerhounds and in Skye terriers, although not so prevalent as once was the case, is still by no means uncommon.
The allusion to the Poltalloch terrier in the " Dogs of Scotland" elicited the following communication from Col. Malcolm, R.E., to the author , of the work in question: " The Poltalloch terriers still exist in the Poltalloch Kennels, and [ hope that your recognition of them may make it more possible to keep them up. They are not invariably white, but run between creamy white and sandy. A good one at his best looks like a handsome deerhound, reduced in some marvellous wav. They are gameness itself, and terrible poachers. They love above all things to get away with a young retriever, and ruin him for ever, teaching him everything he ought not to know. As for wisdom, make one your friend and he will know everything and do it. [have known one whose usual amusement was rat-killing, and who had never retrieved, go into a hole in tender ice and bring out a wild duck, because, I suppose, he thought it a shame to waste it when his master had shot it. This chap had a great friend, a mastiff bitch, and he used to swim along water-rat infested streams, and she applying her nose to the landward hole would snort a rat out of his wits into the water, and into the terrier's jaws, who, silently swimming, was keeping pace with his friend. They are said in the kennels to have a trick of suddenly turning upon one of their number and putting it to death, and when they do this they leave but little· mark of their work, as they eat their victim. They are kept for work-fox and otter hunting. They have consequently to be kept small, and without the power which seems to be of such value on the show bench. This could easily be got by feeding up, but then the dogs would be of no use in the fox cairns. As it is, they often push in between rocks they cannot escape from, and so the best get lost."
Of the original Scottish terriers some there were with semi-erect ears, others with prick ears, as so admirably produced in Mr. Wardle's picture at the commencement of this chapter. The prick ears are acknowledged now as the more fashionable, though I fancy years ago the semi-prick ear was the more common. I have seen some excellent little dogs with semi-erect ears, as good as those with erect ears, but the tyrant Fashion at present holds only the latter the correct article, and by his opinion we have to abide. Classes have been provided for each of the varieties at some of the leading Scottish shows, but those for dogs with their ears "down" have never been well supported. However, the fact must not be overlooked that as puppies the ears are usually carried thrown back or forwards, some even not attaining the correct and erect position until six or eight months old. The hard, crisp coat, too, does not always appear until the puppy is casting its first set of teeth. And this hard coat is a sine qua non, and no prize ought to be given to any Scottish terrier unless the coat is thoroughly hard and strong and crisp and close – it is the hard-haired Scottish terrier, a fact which some judges have sadly overlooked. Another defect too common and often over-looked is to be found in the bat-like ears with, round tips, which some breeders consider to point to a cross with an impure strain. However, they are very unsightly, and ought to act as a very severe handicap on dogs possessing such aural appendages.
There is no denying the fact, even if anyone wished to do so, which I do not believe is possible, that during the last half dozen years the Scottish terrier has advanced very much in popularity. It might have done so even to a greater extent had there not been the Irish terrier and the fox terrier, who had preceded him in the field. So far there has not been much change in his make and shape, although every now and then a cry out has been made about big dogs winning. The gradation to cause this is extremely simple and easy, and I believe that the climatic, domestic, and other surroundings of the Scottish terrier in the south have more than a tendency to make him grow bigger than he really ought to do. Originally few or any of the best strains ran to more than 18lb. weight at most; the majority of terriers were 4lb. below that standard. Still, when a dog is brought into the ring that in show form is 20lb., and he is good in all respects, it is a difficult matter to discard him on account of size. Thus he wins. Perhaps some time later he meets a still bigger dog, one that may run to 22lb. or 24Ib., and it would be very difficult to, as it were, disqualify the latter on account of size alone. And so we have bigger dogs than many people believe to be the correct size, winning prizes.
Dundee, perhaps, when owned by Capt. Mackie, and after, did as much winning as any Scottish terrier. I fancy he of late years when on the bench, having grown wide in front and thick, would weigh not less than 24lb., and other dogs equally big have repeatedly been put into the prize lists at our leading shows. Indeed, one well-known English admirer of the variety says the great difficulty he has in breeding these terriers is to keep them small enough. In the show ring the only way would be for the club to make a hard and fast rule as to weight, and put each dog in the scale before awarding it a prize or a card of honour.
Another matter to guard against is the production of an inordinately long body and crooked fore legs. Now, it is all very well for Scotsmen to say that their terrier should have crooked fore legs, but why should he have them? There is no reason in the world why such a pretty little dog ought to be malformed, and crooked fore legs are a malformation. Until recently no trouble had been taken to have them as straight as they might be, and so the crooked legs cropped up, as they always have done and always will do with long heavy bodies to support-bodies indeed quite out of proportion to the limbs.
A well-known scientist at the Natural History Museum, South Kensington, on being asked his opinion as to the crooked legs now found on many vane ties of the dog, said " the outward curve of the fore limbs of the dachshund (and I suppose of the Scottish terrier, although I do not know them so well) is an inherited deformity unlike anything in nature."
Mr. H. J. Ludlow, one of our oldest admirers of the variety, is likewise of my opinion as to the deformity of the crooked legs, and, in allusion to the above, says this statement from South Kensington is more of an argument in favour of straight fore legs in a Scottish terrier than all the asseverations that have been made by breeders of dogs crooked fronted, that a straight front means ruination. "I take it that if Nature thought bent fore legs were a necessary formation for animals that depend upon burrowing for their safety, nay, for their very existence, she would have produced the requisite curve in at least some of them. I am satisfied to have Nature for my guide in breeding, and so long as I produce terriers that have to follow and do to death these straight-legged diggers, I shall be content with the spades that I find she has supplied her creatures with rather than run after the' inherited deformities ' that some prejudiced persons go rabid over. Looking at the question from a show point of view, there can be no doubt that a terrier with straight fore legs is a far more taking animal than one with crooked limbs, and, if for that reason alone, Scottish terriers are, sooner or later, bound to be bred with fronts as straight as those of the animals they are taught to look upon as their hereditary foes."
We do not want the Scottish terrier as unwieldy as the Dandie Dinmont or as the dachshund. A more active animal than either is required – one that can climb over rocks both above and below ground, and follow hounds in his kind of fashion. We want him an active, symmetrical little dog, on short legs, with a deep chest, not too long in body-in fact, just such an animal as is produced on another page. Mr. Wardle has drawn me two Scottish terriers which, to my mind, in make, shape, character, length of head, &c., are perfection.
There has of late been a tendency to give prizes to dogs with unusually long and narrow heads. Now this is again wrong, for with undue length of head or face, the character of the dog is lost quite as much, even more than it would be were the head short and round and of the bull terrier type. Craze for long heads has done harm to the modern fox terrier, and I think no one will require attention drawn to the injury the collie has sustained by the introduction of long heads, which are quite foreign to the breed.
That I do not stand quite alone in my opinion as to the size and weight of the Scottish terrier will be inferred from the following description, which Mr. Thomson Gray gives in "Dogs of Scotland": "The greatest difficulty is to get straight legs and ears tight up. My idea of a first-class specimen is a very game, hardy-looking terrier, stoutly built, with great bone and substance; deep in chest and back rib, straight back, powerful quarters, on short muscular legs, and exhibiting in a marked degree a great combination of strength and activity. In several terriers shown the body is too long. This I consider a grave fault, and by no means to be encouraged. Terriers built on such lines are very active in their movements, and for going a distance or taking a standing leap I do not believe there is any short-legged breed of terrier can equal them."
The coat should be 1 ½ in. long, thick, dense, lying close, and very hard, with plenty of soft undercoat; tail straight, carried well up, well covered with hair, but not bushy. The ears should be as small and as sharp pointed as possible, well carried forward, and giving the dog a "varmint" appearance. The skull should not be too narrow, being in proportion to the terribly powerful jaw, but must be narrow between the ears, these being carried well up. If carried sluggishly they spoil the appearance of the dog's head. The eyes should be small and deep-set, muzzle long and tapering, and, as already stated, very powerful; teeth, extra large for size of dog, and level. "
“In colour I prefer a dark grey brindle, or warm red brindle. Lately very dark colours have been preferred, but, I think, this is a mistake, as they are not so readily seen in the dark, and with advantage a little lighter shade might be introduced. Still I would certainly prefer a very dark colour dog to one too light in hue. 15lb. or 16lb. bitches and 17lb. to 18lb. dogs are the weights I like best."
Mr. Thomson Gray further says, in a letter recently written: " While I am in favour of having the legs as straight as possible, I would not sacrifice bone and muscle to get this point, or make it a sine qua noon in judging, as most, if not all, of the best terriers of this breed are a little bent, and any really straight-legged specimens I have seen have been deficient in bone, inclined to be leggy and shelly in build. Now it must be kept in mind that the Scottish terrier is first of all a compact, firmly-built terrier, showing extraordinary strength for his size, and to lose these attributes is to lose the strongest points in the breed. Straight legs may be made a fad as much as any other point, and fanciers are apt to run on one point to the detriment of the rest, thus spoiling the even balance of the whole dog. Keeping what I have said in view, I see nothing to prevent these dogs being bred with straight legs, at least so straight as not to be an eyesore to look at."
The Scottish terrier in character and disposition is charming, as a companion most sensible and pleasant. He has no unpleasant smell from his coat, nor does he carry so much dirt into the house from the streets of the town and from the country lanes as a Dandie Dinmont terrier. Another advantage he possesses is that he is not so quarrelsome with other dogs as many terriers are. He will fight, and punish freely, too, when he is attacked and really has to defend himself, but the few that I have owned were slow to set about it. But when they did! I never saw such little dogs with such big teeth, and which could make such big holes in the legs and ears of a bigger opponent. They will go to water well and to ground likewise, , and for hunting rough gorse coverts for rabbits are as useful as any other dark-coloured terriers, but personally I prefer a white dog for the latter purpose, as not so likely to be taken for a rabbit and shot accordingly.
Some of the best Scottish terriers at the present time are owned by Mr. H. J. Ludlow, Gorleston, and Capt. Wetherall, Kettering, both of whom are most successful breeders and exhibitors, such dogs as the former's Brenda and Kildee, and the latter's Tiree II., Buccleuch, and Queen of Scots being all excellent specimens. Mr. J. N. Reynard's Revival (a dog whose dam died during or just after whelping, and was brought up by hand); Mr. E. Thompson's Ivanhoe, Mr. D. Cellar's Dundyvan, Mr. R. Chapman's Heather Prince, Mr. Morton Campbell's Stracathro Vision, Mr. A. MacBrayne's Corrie Dhu and Cairn Dhu, are all quite in the first flight, and equal to anything in the same line that has preceded them. Then Mr. J. D. McColl, Glasgow; Mr. G. H. Stephens, Aberdeen; Mr. D. J. Thomson Gray, Dundee; Mr. John A. Adamson, Aberdeen (one of our very oldest exhibitors and admirers of the breed, and whose Ashley Charlie was only beaten on two occasions), Mr. J. F. Alexander, Kerriemuir (who bred Whinstone, The Macintosh, and Argyle in one litter); Mr. W. McLeod, Maryhill; Mr. H. Blomfield; are all names well-known in connection with this charming variety of terrier, which I hope fashion will never change in character or displace.
The Scottish Terrier Club, established in 1889, has for its secretary M r. A. McBrayne, Irvine, and there is also a Scottish Terrier Club for England, the older establishment of the two, of which Mr. H. J. Ludlow is secretary. The description of the dog issued by the former is as follows:
“Skull (value 5).-Proportionately long, slightly domed, and covered with short, hard, hair, about 3/4in. long or less. It should not be quite flat, as there should be a sort of stop, or drop, between the eyes. "
“Muzzle (value 5).-Very powerful, and gradually tapering towards the nose, which should always be black and of a good size. The jaws should be perfectly level, and the teeth square, though the nose projects somewhat over the mouth, which gives the impression of the upper jaw being longer than the under one.
“Eyes (value 5).-Set wide apart, of a dark brown or hazel colour; small, piercing, very bright, and rather sunken.
“Ears (value 10).- Very small, prick or half prick (the former is preferable), but never drop. They should also be sharp pointed, and the hair on them should not be long, but velvety, and they should not be cut. The ears should be free from any fringe at the top.
“Neck (value 5).-Short, thick, and muscular; strongly set on sloping shoulders.
"Chest (value 5).-Broad in comparison to the size of the dog, and proportionately deep.
“Body (value 10). - Of moderate length, not so long as a Skye's, and rather flat-sided; but well ribbed up, and exceeding strong in hind quarters.
"Legs and Feet (value 10).-Both fore and hind legs should be short, and very heavy in bone, the former being straight or slightly bent, and well set on under the body, as the Scottish terrier should not be out at elbows. The hocks should be bent, and the thighs very muscular; and the feet strong, small, and thickly covered with short hair, the fore feet being larger than the hind ones, and well let down on the ground.
“Tail (value 2 1/2).-Which is never cut, should be about 7 inches long, carried with a slight bend, and , often gaily. "
“Coat (value 15).-Should be rather short (about 2 inches), intensely hard and wiry in texture, and very dense all over the body.
“Size (value 10).-About 16Ib. to 18lb. for a bitch, 18Ib. to 20lb. for a dog.
“Colour's (value 2 1/2).-Steel or iron-grey, brindle or grizzled, black, sandy, and wheaten. White markings are objectionable, and can only be allowed on the chest, and that to a small extent.
"General Appearance (value 10). - The face should bear a very sharp, bright, and active expression, and the head should be carried up. The dog (owing to the shortness of his coat) should appear to be higher on the leg than he really is; but, at the same time, he should look compact, and possessed of great muscle in his hindquarters. In fact, a Scottish terrier though essentially a terrier cannot be too powerfully put together. He should be from 9 inches to 12 inches in height.
“Muzzle. – Either under or overhung.
“Eyes. – Large or light coloured.
“Ears. – Large, round at the points, or drop. It is also a fault if they are too heavily covered with hair.
“Coat. – Any silkiness, wave, or tendency to curl, is a serious blemish, as is also an open coat.
“Size. – Specimens over 18lb. should not be encouraged.
I need scarcely say that the teeth must be large, powerful, and white, and being undershot even in the slightest degree should ensure disqualification. An overshot or pig-jawed mouth ought to be a severe handicap, and if very pronounced, likewise disqualification. An uneven mouth in any terrier I consider a terrible fault, one so serious that all puppies which have their teeth uneven in the slightest degree would, if in my possession, be destroyed. Usually one can tell as soon as the puppy is born how its" mouth" will be, but in some cases it is as well to keep the youngster until it has got its adult teeth before discarding him, as, if the unevenness is not great in the first set of teeth, it may altogether disappear with the second growth.
This, I believe, is the first occasion upon which a volume has been published dealing entirely with the Terriers. Of late years these little dogs have come very much to the front, and, if no new varieties have recently been established, many of the older ones are much more popular at the present time than has previously been the case since the first history of the canine race was written.
As in my preceding volumes, the illustrations must be taken as typical of what they represent, and not as portraits, although the drawings are from living specimens, or from the best photographs of such to be obtained. With the exception of the Bull Terriers, which are from a drawing by R. H. Moore, the whole of the illustrations are from the pencil of Arthur Wardle, who has done so well for me on previous occasions. Included are groups of terriers of a variety, or varieties, which are at present not recognised as quite distinct, though possibly they may be so in the near future. The one group represents the “Border Terrier” – a dog used in Northumberland and on the Borders in conjunction with hounds, and for other purposes. The other group includes an extraordinary type of short-legged wire-haired Fox Terrier, which Mr. W. H. B. Cowley is taking pains to perpetuate in Hertfordshire; a specimen of the Sealy Ham Terrier, of which something has already been written; and of an old-fashioned terrier once common in many parts of England.
In describing the Terriers in all their varieties, I have endeavoured to give particulars as to their working qualifications and their general character, as well as their so-called" show points; " and my desire to prevent a useful race of dog from degenerating into a ladies' pet and a pampered creature, only able to earn his owner gold on the show bench, is my reason for treating so fully of him as he is concerned in that sphere which Nature intended him to occupy.
The specialist clubs are recognised, and their descriptions are printed at length; and to give uniformity to my work I have compiled scales of points where the clubs have failed to do so, although I do not believe figures are of the slightest use in arriving at the excellence, or otherwise, of any dog.
The assistance received from various friends, who are authorities in their own especial line, has been considerable, and to them I am, in a great measure, indebted for much useful information to be found in the following chapters. I thank them accordingly, and, as some slight return for their kindness, dedicate to them this book on the Terriers.
RAWDON B. LEE.
Brixloll, March, 1894.